• Dental
  • Behaviour
  • Spaying/neutering
  • Vaccination
  • Nutrition
  • Worms/parasites



Dental problems

Dental problems often start with an accumulation of dental plaque. This is a yellowish/brownish layer that forms around the transition between tooth/teeth and gums. If left untreated, the plaque can harden and form tartar. The plaque and tartar cause gum inflammation, which is very painful. The animals then often start smelling out of their mouths, have bad breath. If nothing is done about it, paradental disease (gums recede and roots become exposed) can even develop, causing tooth loss. In addition, bacteria get trapped under the plaque and tartar, aggravating inflammation. They can also enter the bloodstream, causing all kinds of heart and/or kidney problems.

Dental treatment

Animals with inflamed gums almost never stop eating, so despite good appetite, your pet may really need dental treatment. They will also not readily indicate pain when it comes to inflammation of the gums. To make dental treatment as effective as possible, it is done under anaesthesia. Under anaesthesia, the entire set of teeth can be properly inspected and cleaned. Importantly, all plaque and tartar are removed, allowing us to properly clean and polish all elements. Elements that are loose or very damaged should be removed, as they can be very painful. The gums may also have receded to the extent that the element needs to be removed.

Often, animals are already a bit older when they undergo dental treatment. It is then best to do a blood test before anaesthesia to see if the kidneys, liver, protein and sugar levels are good. It is possible with us to have such a pre-anaesthetic blood test done. Gas anaesthesia with cardiac monitoring is also available, of course, allowing us to apply the safest possible anaesthesia.


To prevent dental problems, or at least postpone them for a longer period, it is best to brush your pet's teeth several times a week and to adjust their diet if necessary. There are special long toothbrushes and special toothpaste for dogs and cats, which you can get from us. If you start brushing teeth already with young animals, you will see that your pet will eventually tolerate it well.

 Tartar formation is more likely with soft foods. This is because the softer food sticks well to teeth/teeth. Therefore, our advice is to mainly give kibble to your pet. There are also special large/hard kibbles that only break down when they reach the transition from tooth to gum and thus scrape the teeth clean. This thus reduces tartar formation and "massages" the gums, as they must chew more.

Finally, you can add a special liquid through your pet's drinking water. This inhibits tartar formation and gives fresh breath.

For detailed advice on your cat's dental care, please contact one of our veterinary nurses.



Behaviour therapy for cats can remedy behavioural problems, and information and knowledge about cat behaviour can prevent problems. You can visit a cat behaviour therapist for the following behavioural problems: housecleaning, aggression, fear, shyness, annoying eating and scratching habits and many more. Depending on the behaviour, a few tips are enough or the behaviour therapist will come to your home for treatment of problem behaviour.



Sterilization of your cat

Females can come into heat from 5 months of age. Females go into heat lightly, so they often go into heat less or not at all in winter. When a cat is in heat, she often meows a lot and loudly, is very affectionate and throws her tail up. However, you do not always have to see this behaviour. Males can sense that a cat is in heat from afar and mating can happen quickly. If the female cat is mated, she will ovulate. As a result, there is a high chance that the queen will become pregnant after a mating. It is therefore wise not to let your cat out until she has been sterilized. Sterilization is possible as early as 2kg.

Some owners want their queen to have a litter. It is wise not to let the cat become pregnant until she is around 1 year old or a little older. Until then, she may go into heat. The cat pill can prevent pregnancy, but unfortunately it has unpleasant side effects. The main ones are inflammation of the uterus and hyperplasia (= enlargement) of the mammary glands (Dolly Parton syndrome). The latter means that the mammary gland packets sometimes reach the ground. Sterilization is then the only remedy, but it may still be present after this. Unfortunately, no percentages of these side-effects can be mentioned, but still, our advice is to keep the female cat indoors until the age of one and thus not to give the cat pill.

Castration of your male cat

Males can start spraying in the house. Very often the decision is made to castrate the male cat for this reason, as castration will make this problem disappear. Castration is possible as early as 2kg body weight.

Some (young) male cats suffer from urinary tract obstruction, where they cannot urinate. This is a dangerous condition that can be fatal. Research shows there is no relationship between early neutering and urinary tract problems, so there is no reason not to have your male cat neutered.

After neutering/sterilizing your pet, we recommend feeding food for castrated/sterilized animals. This contains fewer calories but also all the vitamins and minerals they need. You can find more information on this under the heading nutrition.




It is important to protect your cat against feline and sneezing disease. This protection should be present at an early age.

Kittens should be vaccinated at 8-9 weeks and at 12 weeks. Kittens receive antibodies through their mother's milk (if she is properly vaccinated). These antibodies may be completely gone from the kitten's body by 8 weeks, making it necessary to vaccinate the kitten. Sometimes the mother's antibodies are still present, which means the kitten will not react sufficiently to the first vaccination. In this case, the kitten should be revaccinated at 12 weeks. Because it is impossible to determine exactly how many antibodies the kittens have in their blood, we vaccinate all kittens twice according to the above schedule. This way, each kitten is sufficiently protected.

After this, the cat should be vaccinated against cat and sneezing disease at the age of one, and then every year against sneezing disease and every two years against feline distemper. Some cats never go outside. Still, it is important to vaccinate your cat properly, as you or other people can bring the pathogens into the house through clothes/shoes. Also, in a household with several cats, there may be a carrier of one of the pathogens of sneezing disease. He or she can suddenly start excreting the virus, making your other unvaccinated cats sick.

With sneezing disease, you often see cats with a snotty nose, strep throat, coughing, eye infection, fever and reduced appetite. These symptoms can be seen separately. It can be caused by three pathogens: Chlamydia, Herpes or Calicivirus. In addition, due to damage to cells, Bordetella bacteria can also cause problems. Vaccination against sneezing disease does not protect against Bordetella. A Bordetella vaccination is not routinely given, but cats that often show symptoms consistent with sneezing disease or cats that often go to boarding kennels can benefit greatly from a vaccination against this bacterium. This is done by means of a nose drop. This should then, like the vaccination against sneezing disease, be given annually. Especially in young and older cats, sneezing disease can be very dangerous. It is therefore important to vaccinate them properly against this disease.

Feline distemper is occasionally seen in the Netherlands. The cats often have a high fever (40-41 degrees), vomiting symptoms and a few days later also severe, often bloody diarrhea. Cat disease is caused by a Parvovirus. The disease is often fatal. Currently, vaccination against it should be given every two years.



Balanced Nutrition

The food your pet eats plays an important role in his or her overall health and well-being. Good, balanced nutrition is an important part of an active and healthy life.

Nutrients versus ingredients

Like humans, an animal needs nutrients such as proteins, fats and fiber to function. Ingredients are simply the transport that delivers this mix of nutrients to the body. When choosing ingredients for pet food, the total balance of nutrients of the ingredient is important. Nutrient is a component of the diet that is useful for metabolism, it can be essential or non-essential.

Some nutrients provide energy. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates provide fuel for the body just like petrol for a car. Different nutrients are needed in certain amounts each day. For example, both humans and animals need gallons of water daily but only micrograms of certain vitamins. Nutrients are divided into six basic categories, all of which play an important role in your pet's health:


The most essential nutrient for survival.


Are energy sources that contribute to the efficient functioning of cells and muscles.


Are large, complex molecules that form the basic elements of body tissues such as muscles, blood, skin, organs, hair and nails


Fats provide absorption, storage and transport of certain fat-soluble vitamins, they provide energy and ensure healthy skin and coat.


Are needed for healthy skin and coat, proper bone development and healthy teeth.


Help ensure that the animal maintains a healthy metabolism.

In a balanced diet, everything is in a certain proportion, tailored to your pet's needs. For example, a young animal needs more protein for growth, while kidney patients need little protein. There is also special food for spayed and neutered cats. It is lower in calories and is to support muscles, teeth, coat, digestion, kidneys and bladder.

Diet food

With certain physical conditions and diseases, it is important to start feeding an appropriate diet. Dietary foods can be prescribed for a few days, for example after surgery or in case of diarrhea. However, with certain conditions, it is important to give a diet for life, for example bladder problems.

A diet food is a balanced diet containing all the vitamins and minerals your pet needs. There is a separate diet for each condition, which is adapted in such a way that your pet still gets all the necessary vitamins and minerals, but also supports his/her condition.

Conditions/diseases for which a diet is available:

  • Obesity
  • Dental disorders
  • Arthritis or osteoarthritis
  • Kidney disorders
  • Bladder stones/grit
  • Lower urinary tract disorders
  • Recovery period after prolonged illness or surgery
  • Gastrointestinal disorders (gastrointestinal complaints)
  • Liver disorders
  • Skin disorders
  • Heart problems
  •  Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes)
  • Tumor or cancer
  • Brain ageing
  • Combinations of disorders or diseases

We do stock most diet foods, but it is also possible that we will have to order certain diet foods for you.

For tailor-made dietary advice, please contact one of our veterinary nurses or nutritionists.



Worms (ESCCAP)

Internal parasites (worms) are a frequent problem in cats. All kittens are infected with roundworm shortly after birth via the mother's milk. Moreover, cats of all ages are constantly exposed to potentially harmful parasites through soil in the (back) garden and in parks contaminated with infectious worm eggs, and through prey animals (e.g. mice) carrying the infection. Although some of these parasites can be harmful, they can be easily controlled and disease from the most common worms - hookworm, roundworm and tapeworm - can be prevented.

Why worms are a problem

Worms can be particularly harmful to kittens, but can also affect the health and well-being of the adult cat. It has been shown through research that 25% of parks and 60% of sandpits in a large city are infested with roundworm eggs. Worms can also be harmful to public health.

How can you examine your pet?

It is best to have your pet examined for worms. This can be done with a fecal examination. Many owners think that if they do not see worms the cat therefore does not have them. This is not true! You do not always need to see worms for a worm infestation. All kittens have worms. It is therefore essential to control them and ensure constant prevention afterwards.

Treating and preventing worms

Since all kittens are already infected right after birth and are constantly reinfected via mother's milk and the environment, it is important to start worm-killing treatment in the very first weeks of life. Even after that, it is important to continue worming the kittens often. For the first weeks, we have a worming paste. When the kittens weigh more than 500 grams, they can be dewormed with tablets for the first time. Until 9 weeks of age, kittens should be wormed every 2 weeks, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of age. From 2 to 6 months every month and every 3 months thereafter. The female cats should be treated at the same time as the kittens. This prevents kittens from developing the disease and excreting worm eggs through their faeces, so the environment does not get infected.

We too can become infected with some of the worms mentioned and this can occasionally cause substantial problems! It depends on the type of worm you get infected with. Because of the wide spread of worms and the ease with which infection can be contracted, adult cats should also be treated regularly (at least four times a year).

There are many drugs available for the treatment and prevention of worms. Some of them work against all common cat worms, providing complete protection for the pet. Make sure you give your pet the drug that best meets his and your needs in terms of ease of use, effectiveness and safety (especially when treating young kittens).


Roundworms, also known as ascarids, are most common in cats and dogs. The adult worms are found in the intestines where they live off intestinal contents. In appearance, they resemble spaghetti and can grow up to 10 cm long.

How are roundworms transmitted?

Most kittens are infected through mother's milk immediately after birth. In addition, cats can get roundworms through the environment, by inadvertently swallowing the infectious eggs in contaminated soil or by eating infected rodents.

The life cycle of the roundworm

Adult roundworms live in the small intestine of cats, where they lay eggs that are released into the environment through the cat's faeces. Within a few days, infectious larvae develop in the eggs.

When a cat swallows the infectious eggs, they hatch in its stomach and then the larvae penetrate the stomach wall and start migrating to various organs, before returning to the intestines. There, they develop into adult worms that lay eggs. Some larvae do not reach the intestine: they remain encapsulated in the various organs until a stimulus, such as pregnancy, reactivates them and causes them to migrate again and develop into adult worms in the intestines.


Roundworms are especially harmful to kittens where the migrating larvae can cause liver, lung and brain damage. The presence of adult worms in the intestines leads to intestinal inflammation that has a variety of effects on digestion, development and growth.


Hookworms are common parasites in the small intestine of dogs and cats.

How hookworms are transmitted

Cats can be infected by inadvertently ingesting hookworm larvae through contaminated soil or through larvae that actively penetrate the skin. Another way of infection is through ingestion of infected prey animals (e.g. mice).

The life cycle of the hookworm

Adult hookworms live in the small intestine of cats where they lay eggs that are released into the environment via the cat's faeces. Within a few weeks, larvae hatch from the eggs, ready to infect the cat. After infection, the larvae begin to migrate until they reach their destination: the cat's intestines, where they develop into adult worms that lay eggs.


Larvae penetrating through the skin cause intense, itchy inflammation; migration through the respiratory system can cause inflammation and coughing.

Adult worms attach to the intestinal wall with hook-shaped teeth and live off blood and tissue, causing discomfort, bloody diarrhea and anaemia. This is compounded by their strong tendency to migrate across the intestinal surface, leaving bleeding wounds that are especially dangerous for kittens.


Tapeworms (cestodes) are common parasites in the small intestine of cats and dogs; they are flat and can be from a few millimeters (Echinococcus) to 2.5 meters (Taenia hydatigena) long. They attach to the cat's intestinal wall and live off intestinal contents absorbed through their integument ('skin').

How are tapeworms transmitted?

Adult tapeworms live in the intestines of cats where they lay eggs that enter the environment through the cat's faeces. These eggs contain a larva in the first stage and, when eaten by an intermediate host, for example a small mammal such as a mouse - for Taenia and Echinococcus multilocularis - or an arthropod (flea or louse) - for Dipylidium caninum -, development continues until the second larval stage. These larvae are infectious to the cat and when the latter swallows the intermediate host or its tissues, they attach to the intestinal wall and become adults within a few weeks.


Adult tapeworms are unpleasant to see but cause little damage in cats, although a severe infestation can lead to intestinal damage due to the physical presence of the worms.

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